Altai Territory is situated in the south-east of Western Siberia, on the border of continental Asia in 3419 km from Moscow. The territory is 168 sq. M. km, the area occupies 24 th place in the Russian Federation and the 10th place in the Siberian Federal District.
On the north edge of the border of the Novosibirsk region, in the east - on the Kemerovo region, the south-eastern border with the Republic of Altai, in the south-west and west - the state border with the Republic of Kazakhstan, which is the length of 843.6 km.
The climate is temperate continental, formed as a result of frequent changes of air masses coming from the Atlantic, Arctic, eastern Siberia and Central Asia.
Absolute annual range of air temperature reaches 90-95o C.
The predominance of cloudless weather provides a significant inflow of solar radiation. The duration of sunshine on average 2000-2300 hours per year, the total amount of radiation reaches 4500-4800 MJ / m2 per year.
Average temperature - positive 0.5-2.1oS. Average maximum temperatures 26 July 28 ° C, extreme up to 40 41oS. Average minimum temperature in January -20 -24oS absolute winter minimum -50 -55 °. The frost-free period lasts about 120 days.
The most dry and hot is the western edge of the flat part. To the east and south-east there is an increase of precipitation of 230 mm and 600-700 mm per year. The average annual temperature rises to the south-west region.
Due to the mountain barrier in the south-east edge of the prevailing west-east transfer of air masses takes on the south-western direction. In the summer months, frequent northerly winds. In 20-45% of cases, the speed of the wind south-western and western direction exceeds 6 m / s. At the edge of the steppe regions with increased wind related to the emergence of hot winds (up to 8-20 days in a year). During the winter months in the periods of active cyclonic activity in the region universally observed blizzards that 30-50 days of the year repeatability.
The snow cover is on average in the second half of November, destroyed in the first decade of April. Snow depth is an average of 40-60 cm, in the western regions is reduced to 20-30 cm, complete blowing snow. The depth of soil freezing is 50-80 cm of snow on the bare steppe areas possibly freezing to a depth of 2-2.5 m.
The main rivers are the Ob, Biya, Katun, Aley, Charysh. The total runoff of rivers edge is 53.5 km3 per year. In the Ob basin, which occupies 70% of the territory, formed 53 km3. The zero-discharge of the Ob-Irtysh interfluve (30% of the territory) is formed only 0.5 km3 runoff.
On the territory of the region of the rivers flowing 17085 total length of 51004 km, including:
16309 - of less than 10 km;
776 - length of 10 km (including 32 rivers more than 100 km, 3 of them - more than 500 km).
9700 rivers are more or less permanent watercourses.
The main waterway of the region - Ob river - the length of the edge within 493 km, formed by the confluence of the rivers Biya and Katun. Its major tributaries (length 500 km) - River Aley, Charysh and Chumysh.
On the territory of the region of about 13 000 lakes, of which more than 230 - an area of over 1km2. The largest are located in the steppe zone of the region:
Kulundinskoye - 728 km2,
Kuchukskoe - 181 km2,
Bitter (Romanovsky district) - 140 km2,
Big Populus - 76 km2,
Big Yarovoye - 66.7 km2.
There are significant reserves of groundwater. Their potential operational resources within the flat part of the edge of a 50-year period amount to 269 m3 / s. The region uses less than 20% of fresh groundwater of the total forecasted operational stocks.
DIVERSITY OF WILDLIFE
The diversity of zonal and intrazonal landscapes of the Altai Territory promotes species diversity of fauna.
The most numerous group of animals in the province - invertebrates, and among them - the class of insects (over 400 species). 31 insect species listed in the Red Book of the Altai Territory.
Class amphibians represented in the region by five species, of which two types - ordinary newt and salamander - included in the Red Book of the Altai Territory.
Of the nine species of reptiles are listed in the Red Book viper steppe agama takyr, colorful lizard, living in some areas of the steppe region.
In the region there are more than 320 species of birds, of which nest in the region of 220 to 290 species. Due to the reduction of the area of the most important nesting sites completely or partially disappeared serpent eagle, little bustard, bustard. Of the 84 species of birds listed in the Red Book of the Altai Territory, livelihoods of more than half vidovnapryamuyu associated with wetland edges.
Mammals are represented by 82 species. The most important are wild ungulates and fur animals, production of which produce meat, fur, leather and medicinal raw materials. In recent years, it reduced the number of elk, brown bear, squirrels, marmots, musk deer, otters. It noted a slight decrease in the number of wolf and beaver. However, there was a tendency of increasing the number of some animals since 1996, especially for licensed hunting species - red deer, roe deer, elk, brown bear, musk deer, sable, wild boar. Plowing huge spaces lowland steppe and steppe has led to a peculiar anthropogenic lesopolevyh and field habitats with specific populations of wildlife. In the northern Lesopolye among mammals dominant position acquired a field mouse. The fields at the site of the southern forest-steppe and steppe dominate these types of steppe fauna - ground squirrels and hamsters. Became predominant red-cheeked ground squirrel, extending its range for plowing the land.
On the territory of the region includes the following types of vegetation: forests, grasslands, meadows, marshes, tundra, shrub, rock, water, saline and Synanthropic.
Flora of the Altai Territory has 2186 species of vascular plants, including 1886 native and adventitious 300, about 400 species of mosses, lichens around - 700 species. Among them are representatives of endemic and relict species.
Hayfields and pastures. Pasture and hay meadows of the Altai Territory occupy 3731 thousand. Ha, which is 35% of the agricultural land. Hayfields and pastures have economic value, as forage for livestock, as well as habitats for a variety of animals and plants, including rare. They grow up to 300 species of plants that produce roughage. This is mainly cereals, legumes and forbs. The most productive are inundated hay meadows for the production of green mass of feed. Herbaceous vegetation forage lands successfully protects the soil from erosion and deflation (at a reasonable load grazed livestock).
Useful flora Territory has 1184 species of plants, among which are: drugs - 913 species, honey - 379, feed - 663, fine - 400, food - 228 vitaminosnye - 42, dyeing - 117, essential oil - 87, tannins - 58 poisonous - 135 technical - 79 species. herbs large group of most of them are widely used in official medicine about 100 species. This is the golden root, maral root, red root, peony root of Marin, Ural licorice, marjoram, St. John's wort, elecampane high, and others. There are medicinal plants, whose culture is complex and natural resources are the only source of raw materials: Adonis spring, cranberries, calamus swamp, yellow water-lily.
Forest edge. The total forest area in the region is 4375.1 thousand. Ha (26% of the region territory), including 3635.6 thousand hectares covered by forest Wooded Altai Territory - 22.1%. Distributed forests in the province unevenly. In the Kulunda steppe and forest-steppe zone of the left bank of the Ob forest cover is 12%, on the right bank of the Ob 24%, rising in the mountainous parts of up to 34%. The stock of wood - 527 400 000 cubic meters.. M. The dominant species in the forests are coniferous edge - 43.2% (including cedar 1.1%), small-leaved - 56,8%. The average age of plantations - 62,8 years, including conifers - 84.6 years and deciduous - 47 years. According to forestry and forest economic conditions, the role and importance of forests in the province of forest area allocated 4: Belt upland, Priobsky, Salairsky and foothills. In the Altai Territory conditions for forest fires occur from April to October inclusive. To eliminate the effects of forest fires, destruction of plantations from pests and diseases, increase in forest area are carried out reforestation activities. The annual volume of reforestation in the region of over 10 hectares
The region is mined coal, lignite, iron ore, manganese, chromium, titanium, vanadium, tungsten, bauxite, nickel, cobalt, base metals, precious metals (gold, silver, platinum), scandium and rare earths, fluorspar, cement raw materials, gypsum.
Altai Territory is famous for unique deposits of jasper, porphyry, marble, granite, mineral and drinking groundwater, mineral curative mud.
The salt lakes are concentrated significant reserves of mineral raw materials for the food and chemical industry: sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, natural soda, magnesium salt and bromine.
The raw edge of polymetallic base is concentrated in 16 fields with total balance reserves of 70 mln. Tons of ore. The deposits are located compactly in areas with good infrastructure in the southwestern part of the province. Besides the basic metals - copper, lead, zinc - ore deposits also contain gold, silver, cadmium, bismuth, selenium, thallium, gallium, tellurium, sulfur, and other elements (in separate fields - barite).
The raw material base of iron (magnetite) ore is represented by two thoroughly explored deposits with total ore reserves of about 490 million. Tons. The deposits are located in the unallocated subsoil fund.
Enough high predictive potential resource base of coal (200 million. Tonnes of coal and 600 million. Tons of brown). Intensification of coal production in the coming years is associated with Munayskim lignite deposit. With involvement in the operation of all deposits with reserves of 34.7 million. Tons of annual production can be increased to 800 and more thousand. Tonnes.
The gold contained in the complex polymetallic actually gold and placer deposits. Gold complex polymetallic type is concentrated in the 16 above-mentioned fields. The deposits of placer gold are concentrated in 17 zolotorossypnyh nodes developed 8 fields.
4 explored deposits with total reserves of sodium sulphate in an amount of 265 309 thous. Tons. Operated Lake deposit. Kuchuk with volume production of about 500 thousand. Tonnes of sodium sulphate annually.
Altai region has mineral waters and curative mud, on the basis of which was developed sanatorium system. The resort Belokurikha extensive use of sources subthermal slaboradonovymi weakly mineralized nitrogen-siliceous waters developed Zavyalovsky mine mineral medical table groundwater mud lake. Small Yarovoye (400 m3 / year), preparing for the development of deposits of curative mud lake. Bitter-Zavyalovsky and Lake. Mormyshanskoe.
In recent years, carried out exploration work on lignite, manganese, chromium, nickel, cobalt, base metals, gold, fluorspar, phosphorite, underground drinking and mineral water, curative mud.
The total area of the land fund of the edge of 15799.6 thousand. Ha. arable land - 40.6%.
In the Altai region is irrigated by 105.7 thousand hectares, of which 99.5 thousand ha -.. On arable land. . The region is 8.5 thousand ha of drained land, the bulk is in forage lands - 7.3 thousand hectares.. Drained wetlands are exposed and wetlands are located mainly in the floodplains forest-steppe zone.
The soil cover of Altai territory is very diverse, represented by thirteen soil types, which are dominated by black soils, gray forest and chestnut soils, occupying 88.5% of arable land.
About half of arable land have security phosphorus, the third part is provided below the average potassium, almost everywhere plants need nitrogen fertilizers and provided enough zinc, sulfur, cobalt and molybdenum.
Soil Acidification. Soils with acid reaction in the region occupied by about 18% and 14.5% of agricultural cropland.
Salinization, soil alkalinization. Saline soils in the region occupy 1042.1 thousand hectares, alkaline soils and solonetz complexes -. 827, 2 thousand hectares.. In this case, agricultural land is 982.6 thousand. Ha of saline and 807.2 thous. Ha solonetzes and alkaline soils. The arable land saline soils occupy 295.8 hectares, alkaline and solonetz complexes -. 323.7 thousand ha..
FEATURES OF REGIONAL ECONOMY
Altai Territory is located at the intersection of transcontinental transit cargo and passenger traffic, in close proximity to the major raw materials and processing regions. In the province motorways connecting Russia with Mongolia, Kazakhstan, the railway connecting Central Asia with the Trans-Siberian Railway, international airlines. The favorable geographical position of the region and its high accessibility a great opportunity to establish a strong economic and trade relations of interregional and international levels.
Recreational potential, combined with a favorable climate of the south of Western Siberia, the rich historical and cultural heritage provide an opportunity for the development of the Altai Territory of various types of tourism and sports and leisure recreation.
Policy Altai Territory is aimed at the formation of the most favorable conditions for attracting investments: improving the forms of state business support, infrastructure (transport, energy), the strengthening of the economic position of the edge in Russia and abroad, and Law Enforcement.
The official website of the Administration of the Altai Territory